Perceived Deficits Questionnaire – Depression (PDQ-D)

The Perceived Deficits Questionnaire – Depression (PDQ-D) is a brief patient-rated scale to assess subjective cognitive dysfunction in people with depression. The PDQ-D is a 20-item questionnaire that generates a total score and 4 subscale scores (attention/concentration, retrospective memory, prospective memory, and planning/organization). A 5-item version (PDQ-D-5) is also available.

The PDQ-D was originally developed by Dr. Michael Sullivan at McGill University as a scale for use in patients with multiple sclerosis. It has since been adapted and validated for use in patients with major depressive disorder. There are also Chinese and Korean versions of the PDQ-D.

The PDQ-D is provided free for non-commercial use and is available for download at the eProvide web site.

The PDQ-D-5 is also included in our MoodFx online app  and in the THINC-it cognitive screener.

PDQ-D Validation Studies

Sullivan JJ, Edgley K, Dehoux E. A survey of multiple sclerosis. Part 1. Perceived cognitive problems and compensatory strategy use. Can J Rehabil. 1990;4:99–105.
The development of the original PDQ.

Fehnel SE, Forsyth BH, Dibenedetti DB, Danchenko N, François C, Brevig T. Patient-centered assessment of cognitive symptoms of depression. CNS Spectr. 2016;21:43–52.
Describes the development process for the PDQ-D.

Lam RW, Lamy FX, Danchenko N, Yarlas A, White M, Rive B, Saragoussi D. Psychometric validation of the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire – Depression (PDQ-D) instrument in a survey of US and UK respondents. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2018; 14:2861-2877.
This is the full validation study for the PDQ-D-20.

Kim J-M, Hong J-P, Kim S-D, Kang H-J, Lee Y-S. Development of a Korean version of the perceived deficits questionnaire for patients with major depressive disorder. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2016;14:26–32.

Shi C, Wang G, Tian F, Han X, Sha S, Xing X, Yu X. Reliability and validity of Chinese version of perceived deficits questionnaire for depression in patients with MDD. Psychiatry Res. 2017;252:319–24.

Studies Using the PDQ-D

  1. Zhang W, Zhu N, Lai J, Liu J, Ng CH, Chen J, Qian C, Du Y, Hu C, Chen J, Hu J, Wang Z, Zhou H, Xu Y, Fang Y, Shi C, Hu S. Reliability and Validity of THINC- it in Evaluating Cognitive Function of Patients with Bipolar Depression. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2020 Oct 21;16:2419-2428.
  2. Zhang BH, Feng L, Feng Y, Xin LM, Zhu XY, Tan YL, Wang G. The Effect of Cognitive Impairment on the Prognosis of Major Depressive Disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2020 Sep;208(9):683-688.
  3. Hou Y, Yao S, Hu S, Zhou Q, Han H, Yu X, McIntyre RS, Shi C. PSYCHOMETRIC properties of the Chinese version of the THINC-it tool for cognitive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2020 Aug 1;273:586-591.
  4. Dhillon S, Videla-Nash G, Foussias G, Segal ZV, Zakzanis KK. On the nature of objective and perceived cognitive impairments in depressive symptoms and real- world functioning in young adults. Psychiatry Res. 2020 May;287:112932.
  5. Wang G, Tan KHX, Ren H, Hammer-Helmich L. Impact of Cognitive Symptoms on Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Productivity in Chinese Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Results from the PROACT Study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2020 Mar 13;16:749-759.
  6. Inoue T, Sasai K, Kitagawa T, Nishimura A, Inada I. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of vortioxetine in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2020 Feb;74(2):140-148.
  7. Chokka P, Bougie J, Proulx J, Tvistholm AH, Ettrup A. Long-term functioning outcomes are predicted by cognitive symptoms in working patients with major depressive disorder treated with vortioxetine: results from the AtWoRC study. CNS Spectr. 2019 Dec;24(6):616-627.
  8. Sumiyoshi T, Watanabe K, Noto S, Sakamoto S, Moriguchi Y, Tan KHX, Hammer- Helmich L, Fernandez J. Relationship of cognitive impairment with depressive symptoms and psychosocial function in patients with major depressive disorder: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from PERFORM-J. J Affect Disord. 2019 Nov 1;258:172-178.
  9. Haro JM, Hammer-Helmich L, Saragoussi D, Ettrup A, Larsen KG. Patient- reported depression severity and cognitive symptoms as determinants of functioning in patients with major depressive disorder: a secondary analysis of the 2-year prospective PERFORM study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2019 Aug 13;15:2313-2323.
  10. Wang G, Si TM, Li L, Fang Y, Wang CX, Wang LN, Tan KHX, Ettrup A, Eriksen HF, Luo S, Ge L. Cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder: associations with clinical and functional outcomes in a 6-month, non-interventional, prospective study in China. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2019 Jul 1;15:1723-1736.
  11. Chokka P, Bougie J, Rampakakis E, Proulx J. Assessment in Work Productivity and the Relationship with Cognitive Symptoms (AtWoRC): primary analysis from a Canadian open-label study of vortioxetine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). CNS Spectr. 2019 Jun;24(3):338-347.
  12. Nierenberg AA, Loft H, Olsen CK. Treatment effects on residual cognitive symptoms among partially or fully remitted patients with major depressive disorder: A randomized, double-blinded, exploratory study with vortioxetine. J Affect Disord. 2019 May 1;250:35-42.
  13. Fan SS, Lin LF, Chen VC, Hsieh CW, Hsiao HP, McIntyre RS, Iacobucci M, Coles AS, Tsai DJ, Weng JC, Chen YL. Effects of Lower Past-Year Serum Sodium and Hyponatremia on Depression Symptoms and Cognitive Impairments in Patients With Hemodialysis. Ther Apher Dial. 2020 Apr;24(2):169-177.
  14. Zainal NZ, Kalita P, Herr KJ. Cognitive dysfunction in Malaysian patients with major depressive disorder: A subgroup analysis of a multicountry, cross- sectional study. Asia Pac Psychiatry. 2019 Mar;11(1):e12346.
  15. Sawada K, Yoshida K, Ozawa C, Mizuno Y, Rubinstein EB, Suzuki T, Mimura M, Uchida H. Impact of subjective vs. objective remission status on subjective cognitive impairments in depression. J Affect Disord. 2019 Mar 1;246:99-104.
  16. Lee JO, Kim JW, Kang HJ, Hong JP, Kim JM. Predictors of Cognitive Improvement during 12 Weeks of Antidepressant Treatment in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2018 Nov 30;16(4):461-468.
  17. Knight MJ, Fourrier C, Lyrtzis E, Aboustate N, Sampson E, Hori H, Mills NT, Baune BT. Cognitive Deficits in the THINC-Integrated Tool (THINC-it) Are Associated With Psychosocial Dysfunction in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2018 Nov 20;80(1):18m12472.
  18. Bickford D, Morin RT, Catalinotto D, Mackin RS, Nelson JC. Screening for Executive Dysfunction in Late-Life Depression: Utility of Trail Making Test and Self-Report Measures. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2018 Oct;26(10):1091-1094.
  19. Cha DS, Carmona NE, Rodrigues NB, Mansur RB, Lee Y, Subramaniapillai M, Phan L, Cha RH, Pan Z, Lee JH, Lee J, Almatham F, Alageel A, Rosenblat JD, Shekotikhina M, Rong C, Harrison J, McIntyre RS. Cognitive impairment as measured by the THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it): The association with self- reported anxiety in Major Depressive Disorder. J Affect Disord. 2018 Oct 1;238:228-232.
  20. Lee Y, Smofsky A, Nykoliation P, Allain SJ, Lewis-Daly L, Schwartz J, Pollack JH, Tarride JE, McIntyre RS. Cognitive Impairment Mediates Workplace Impairment in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From the Motivaction Study. Can J Diabetes. 2018 Jun;42(3):289-295.
  21. Smith J, Browning M, Conen S, Smallman R, Buchbjerg J, Larsen KG, Olsen CK, Christensen SR, Dawson GR, Deakin JF, Hawkins P, Morris R, Goodwin G, Harmer CJ. Vortioxetine reduces BOLD signal during performance of the N-back working memory task: a randomised neuroimaging trial in remitted depressed patients and healthy controls. Mol Psychiatry. 2018 May;23(5):1127-1133.
  22. McIntyre RS, Best MW, Bowie CR, Carmona NE, Cha DS, Lee Y, Subramaniapillai M, Mansur RB, Barry H, Baune BT, Culpepper L, Fossati P, Greer TL, Harmer C, Klag E, Lam RW, Wittchen HU, Harrison J. The THINC-Integrated Tool (THINC-it) Screening Assessment for Cognitive Dysfunction: Validation in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017 Jul;78(7):873-881.
  23. Cha DS, Carmona NE, Mansur RB, Lee Y, Park HJ, Rodrigues NB, Subramaniapillai M, Rosenblat JD, Pan Z, Lee JH, Lee J, Almatham F, Alageel A, Shekotikhina M, Zhou AJ, Rong C, Harrison J, McIntyre RS. Pain and major depressive disorder: Associations with cognitive impairment as measured by the THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it). Scand J Pain. 2017 Apr;15:62-67.
  24. Harvey PD, Jacobson W, Zhong W, Nomikos GG, Cronquist Christensen M, Kurre Olsen C, Merikle E. Determination of a clinically important difference and definition of a responder threshold for the UCSD performance-based skills assessment (UPSA) in patients with major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2017 Apr 15;213:105-111.
  25. McIntyre RS, Florea I, Tonnoir B, Loft H, Lam RW, Christensen MC. Efficacy of Vortioxetine on Cognitive Functioning in Working Patients With Major Depressive Disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017 Jan;78(1):115-121.
  26. Frampton JE. Vortioxetine: A Review in Cognitive Dysfunction in Depression. Drugs. 2016 Nov;76(17):1675-1682.
  27. Mahableshwarkar AR, Zajecka J, Jacobson W, Chen Y, Keefe RS. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Active-Reference, Double-Blind, Flexible-Dose Study of the Efficacy of Vortioxetine on Cognitive Function in Major Depressive Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Jul;40(8):2025-37. Erratum in: Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Nov;41(12 ):2961.
  28. Lawrence C, Roy A, Harikrishnan V, Yu S, Dabbous O. Association between severity of depression and self-perceived cognitive difficulties among full-time employees. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2013;15(3):PCC.12m01469.